The Community Reinvestment Act is intended to encourage depository institutions to meet the credit needs of their communities.
The Community Reinvestment Act, known as the CRA, was enacted by Congress in 1977 and is implemented through regulations of the four agencies: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency and the Office of Thrift Supervision. The CRA is implemented under the Federal Reserve Board's Regulation BB.
The intention of the CRA is to encourage depository institutions to help meet the credit needs of the communities in which they operate, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods, and to be consistent with safe and sound lending practices. The Act was created in reaction to three historical trends related to banking and lending: so-called "redlining," disinvestment and housing discrimination. It was also designed as an incentive to invest in affordable housing and economic development. Under the CRA, examiners periodically evaluate an individual bank's record in helping meet a community's credit needs for a specific assessment area. Applications for future approval of bank mergers, acquisitions and branch openings are evaluated based on this record. CRA focuses on whether credit is available in a specific geographic area.
U.S. Government Printing Office
Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council
Federal Reserve Board of Governors
Bank ratings and evaluations, bank designation, strategic plans and quarterly exam schedules
Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
CRA resources and CRA ratings information for bankers
Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco
Revisiting the CRA: Perspectives on the Future of the Community Reinvestment Act
Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas
The CRA and Subprime Lending: Discerning the Difference
HEALTHY COMMUNITIES: A Framework for Meeting CRA Obligations
Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis
Did the CRA Cause the Mortgage Meltdown?
Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
Historical Perspectives on the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Policy Brief: The Effect of the Community Reinvestment Act on Consumers’ Contact with Formal Credit Markets