Before the Fed
By Ernie Siciliano
Calomiris, Charles W., and Larry Schweikart. "The Panic of 1857: Origins, Transmission, and Containment." Journal of Economic History. 1991, vol. 51. no. 4.
Grossman, Richard S. "U.S. Banking History, Civil War to World War II." EH.Net Encyclopedia, edited by Robert Whaples. March 17, 2003.
Moen, Jon R., and Ellis Tallman. "New York and the Politics of Central Banks, 1781 to the Federal Reserve Act." Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Working Paper no. 42, December 2003.