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Supervision and Regulation

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The Federal Reserve is responsible for the supervision of certain financial institutions to ensure that they comply with rules and regulations, and that they operate in a safe and sound manner. We supervise all state-chartered banks in the Fifth District that have elected to become members of the Federal Reserve. In addition, we supervise all bank holding companies, savings and loan holding companies, and the operations of any foreign bank conducting business in our District.


We operate under a relationship structure that allows us to be responsive, and we have an experienced team with diverse skills located in Richmond, Baltimore and Charlotte.

By continually seeking feedback from leaders of our member banks on the quality and efficiency of the examination and overall supervisory process, we provide value added supervision through helpful training and learning opportunities outside of our examination program.  

The Community and Regional Bank Supervision Group oversees all state member banks as well as bank holding companies and savings and loan holding companies with assets below $50 billion.

We assess and monitor the safety and soundness of these entities through on-site and off-site examinations and inspections, analysis of reported financials, and ongoing two-way communications between the Richmond Fed and the financial institutions. Additionally, Consumer Affairs examiners evaluate a state member bank’s compliance with consumer protection laws and regulations.

Large Financial Institution Supervision

When financial institutions have assets over $50 billion, it substantially increases the supervisory rigor that’s required. If a firm is considered “systemically significant” to the American economy, then even more oversight is necessary. Our Large Financial Institution Supervision unit focuses on the large firms that are headquartered within the Fifth District and works with Reserve Banks across the country to coordinate oversight of large firms nationwide. We work with firms to make sure they are handling their risks appropriately and are well positioned to be resilient in the face of challenging business conditions.

Safety and Soundness

Examiners conduct commercial bank examinations and bank holding company inspections to evaluate the soundness of the institution's assets and the effectiveness of its internal operations, policies and management. Examiners analyze asset quality, capital, earnings and liquidity and assess the institution's sensitivity to certain risks. They also check for compliance with banking laws and regulations.

Consumer Affairs

The Consumer Affairs section of the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond has responsibility for ensuring that Fifth District state member banks comply with the provisions of federal consumer protection laws and regulations governing the activities of financial institutions.

Enforcement Actions

Enforcement actions are necessary for violations of laws, rules, or regulations, unsafe or unsound practices, breaches of fiduciary duty, and violations of final orders. Actions can be assessed against any entity the Federal Reserve has authority to supervise, including officers, directors, and employees. Formal enforcement actions include written agreements, cease and desist orders, removal and prohibition orders, and orders assessing civil money penalties.

Banking Studies

Each Reserve Bank tracks macro banking and economic trends and conditions in its region. This supports the supervisory process through the preparation of banking/economic studies and by development of new monitoring tools. Specific emphasis is given to areas of emerging risk and banking policy issues to determine the potential impact on supervised institutions.

Additional Resources

SR Letters
Supervision and Regulation Letters, commonly known as SR Letters, address significant policy and procedural matters related to the Federal Reserve System's supervisory responsibilities.

Regulations
Congress has assigned to the Board of Governors responsibility for implementing the Federal Reserve Act, which established the Federal Reserve System, and certain other laws pertaining to a wide range of banking and financial activities.

Supervision Manuals  

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